Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
What are type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS) is a disease of multifactorial autoimmune causation.Worldwide, there is a marked geographic variation in prevalence. The overall lifetime risk in Caucasian subjects is approximately 0–4%. Type 1 DIABETES MELLITUS is caused by an interaction between environmental factors and an inherited genetic predisposition. In twin
In type 1a diabetes mellitus, a genetically susceptible host develops auto immunity against his or her own beta cells. What triggers this autoimmune response remains unclear at this time. In some (but not all) patients, this autoimmune process results in progressive destruction of beta cells until a critical mass of beta cells is lost and
While rare monogenic forms of autoimmune type 1 diabetes are known (see below), in most cases, type 1 diabetes is a complex disorder in which multiple genes and environmental factors interact to cause the disease or confer protection against it. There is a clear familial clustering of type 1 diabetes, with prevalence in siblings approaching
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion, a generally rapid onset, and dependence on exogenous insulin at the time of diagnosis. These patients are also prone to ketosis. Insulin deficiency in type 1a diabetes is caused by immune-mediated destruction of beta cells and is associated with evidence of auto immunity.