The diagnosis of diabetes is established solely by documentation of abnormal glycemic values. As shown in Table 7.2 there are three criteria used to make a diagnosis of diabetes; elevated fasting glucose, abnormal OGTT, or symptoms of diabetes with hyperglycemia. Glucose tolerance tests are performed by providing either 75 or 100 g of glucose. This
Definition and Nomenclature of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a group of diverse metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and distinctive complications that include premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and small vessel disease manifested as retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; and peripheral neuropathy with a high risk of foot ulcers and amputations.