Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome
A prodigious number of population studies have tested the hypothesis that insulin resistance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in an attempt to understand the 2- to 4-fold increase in CV disease mortality with diabetes. Most used fasting plasma insulin or HOMA-IR to measure insulin resistance.Small studies, using the euglycemic insulin clamp, showed a
< 23 is defined as normal, 23–25 is defined as overweight, and > 25 is defined as obese. The BMI is an imperfect measure and for a greater understanding of obesity and its relationship to metabolism, it is important to describe body composition. Total body fat can be estimated by body volume (using an underwater
To maintain normal glucose homeostasis, there must be adequate insulin secretion synchronized with target tissue insulin responsiveness. Following the ingestion of a meal, insulin, secreted from the pancreas, permits the circulating blood glucose to be transported to muscle and adipose cells for metabolism or storage and also suppresses the release of glucose from the liver.